The Department was established in 1918-19 with Sri C.N. Joshi as its first Head in the beginning, Marathi was offered in the intermediate and B.A. courses. M.A., M. Phil and Ph. D. programmes were introduced in 1942, 1981 and 1951 respectively.
During the golden jubilee celebrations of the University in 1968, the Government of Maharashtra institued a Professorship called The "Maharashtra Chair of Marathi" Dr. Sreedhar Rao Kulkarni was the first to occupy the chair in 1970.
Maharashtra state awarded to Dr. S. R. Kulkarni for 'Prachin Marathi Prerna ani Parmpra (1971), 'Telanganatil Are Maratha Samaj: Bhasha ani Sanskruti' (1968).He has also received 'Sahitya Samrat N. C. Kelkar Award for 'Nathancha Bhagwat Dharm' in 1958. He was President of the !5 th"Marathwada Sahitya Samelan" at Jalana.
Prof. Shobha Deshmukh has awarded by Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Pune as "Best Drama Critic" for 'Marathi Natkatil Stri Rupe' in 2007. In 2010 she participated in "International Seminar, Rashiya" and research paper presented.
She has awarded as 'Best Teacher' in 2001 by Education Minister of for 'Dakshin Bhartatil Marathi Sahitya Sanshodhan'. She has complited 3 Major Projects and 1 Minor Project through U.G.C. Delhi.
Marathi is offered as the second language in affiliated colleges. The Department has been publishing an annual research journal "Marathi Swadhyaya Sanshodhan Patrika" since 1960. The Department has awarded Ph.D. and 27 M. Phill Degrees so far. Those who complete Ph. D. in Marathi are awarded ' Madhekar Memorial Gold Medal'.
Faculty Members of the Department have Published 80 research books so far. Prominent academicians who worked in the Department are Prof. S. R. Kulkarni, Prof. V.D. Kulkarni, Prof. Manik Rao Dhanpalwar, Prof. Kavita. K., Prof. Suresh Kate, Prof. Shobha Deshmukh.